Julia Corbett discusses the tendency for us to have an anthropocentric viewpoint, which is reflected in dominant discourse. She tells us that communication for the environment can play a role in developing a more eco-centric viewpoint in our society and contribute to a new insurgent discourse that supports environmental goals. She provides us with a spectrum of environmental ideologies that are expressed as discourse currently.
1. Unrestrained instrumentalism-the natural world and all of it’s resources exist solely for human use
2. Conservationism-Wise use and greatest use for the greatest number of people
3. Preservationism-Conserving resources for humans to use and enjoy for other reasons (religious, aesthetic etc)
4. Ethics and values-driven ideologies-non-human entities have intrinsic value. Humans are part of a biotic community. Reformist rather than radical.
5. Transformative ideologies-deeper questioning of the roots of ecological crisis. Deep ecology focus, ecofeminism, native and eastern religious traditions. Recognizes the role power and dominance play in the problem. (p. 28). Believe in a radical restructuring of society.
As we can see from the above spectrum, it is clear that not all people are coming from the same place and that there is not one environmental insurgent discourse many on a wide spectrum of radicalism. A lot of the research on audiences and reception of messages focuses on which audiences have which entrenched ideologies and which messages can reach each of these audiences effectively.
For example, an article in the Tyee online newspaper in 2006, encouraged environmentalists to stop talking about saving the whales and other furry creatures and move closer to a discussion about humans and the impact on humans of the environmental crisis. The author recommended this because he believed that most of the people that needed to be convinced to change their beliefs and behaviors fit under ideologies #1 and #2 http://thetyee.ca/Citizentoolkit/2006/04/25/WantPowerGetIt/